Notes and bibliography for The Unspoken Spoken: Beloved in the context of African American slavery, and slave narratives
by Marie C. E. Burns.

These notes and bibliography accompany The Unspoken Spoken: Beloved in the context of African American slavery, and slave narratives

Notes
These notes accompany the numbers in square brackets
1 Toni Morrison, Beloved,  (London: Vintage, 1987) 118.
2 Toni Morrison, "The Site of Memory," Inventing the Truth: The Art and Craft of Memoir, ed. William Zeissman,  (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1987) 111.
3 Nancy J Peterson, "'Say Make Me, Remake Me': Toni Morrison and the Reconstruction of African American History,"  Toni Morrison: Critical and Theoretical Approaches, ed. Nancy J Peterson (Baltimore: The John Hopkins University Press, 1997) 209.  
4 Harriet Jacobs, Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl, (Boston: 1861)
http://xroads.virginia.edu/~HYPER/JACOBS/hj-cover.htm accessed Mar 2005.
Electronic Text, no page numbers, chapter only.
5 Joe William Trotter, Jr., The African American Experience   (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001) 58.
6 Edmund S. Morgan, "The Paradox of Slavery and Freedom," Major Problems in African-American History: Volume 1: From Slavery to Freedom, 1619-1877, eds. Thomas C. Holt and Elsa Barkley Brown,  (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2000) 106.
7 "An Act to Discriminate Between Africans and Others in Maryland, 1664" Major Problems in African-American History: Volume 1: From Slavery to Freedom, 1619-1877, eds. Thomas C. Holt and Elsa Barkley Brown (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2000) 89.
8 Morgan 106.
9 Morgan 106.
10 Winthrop D. Jordan, "'The Mutual Causation' of Racism and Slavery," Major Problems in African-American History: Volume 1: From Slavery to Freedom, 1619-1877, eds. Thomas C. Holt and Elsa Barkley Brown (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2000) 98.
11 Deborah Gray White, Ar'n't I a Woman?: Female Slaves in the Plantation South  Revised ed.(New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1999) 31.  
12 Gray White, Ar'n't I a Woman? Female Slaves in the Plantation South 31.
13 Gray White, Ar'n't I a Woman? Female Slaves in the Plantation South 32.
14 Trotter 64.
15 Trotter 67-72.
16 Aaron, The Light and Truth of Slavery. Aaron's History, (Worcester, Ma. 1845)
Electronic edition, (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina,2000) 24
http://docsouth.unc.edu/neh/aaron/aaron.html accessed Mar 2005.
17 Aaron 24 - 25.
18 Aaron 25.
19 Geoffrey C.Ward, Ric Burns and Ken Burns, The Civil War: An Illustrated History of the War Between the States (London: The Bodley Head, 1991)  9.
20 Hugh Brogan, The Penguin History of the USA, 2nd ed. (London: Penguin Books, 1999) 103.
21 Brogan 103.
22 Brogan 103.
23 Trotter 47.
24 Brogan 299.
25 William Wells Brown, Narrative of William Wells Brown, An American Slave, Written by Himself  (London: Charles Gilpin, 1849) 50.
http://docsouth.unc.edu/brownw/brown.html accessed Mar 2005.
26 "Slavery in the United States," Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopaedia, 2005. np.
http://ak.encarta.msn.com accessed Jan 2005.
27 Gray White, Ar'n't I a Woman: Female Slaves in the Plantation South 105.
28 Trotter 152-153.
29 Trotter 153.
30 Gray White, Ar'n't I a Woman: Female Slaves in the Plantation South 72.
31 Deborah Gray White, "Gender Roles and Gender Identity in Slave Communities," Major Problems in African-American History: Volume 1: From Slavery to Freedom, 1619-1877, eds. Thomas C. Holt and Elsa Barkley Brown (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2000) 275.
32 Gray White, "Gender Roles and Gender Identity in Slave Communities," 275.
33 Gray White, "Gender Roles and Gender Identity in Slave Communities," 277.
34 L.H. Owens, This Species of Property: Slave Life and Culture in the Old South, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1976) 40-41.
35"Declaration of the National Anti-Slavery Convention (1833)," Antebellum American Culture: An Interpretive Anthology, ed. David Brion Davis (Lexington, Mass.: D.C. Heath and Company, 1979) 427.
36 Wells Brown 47-49.
37 Wells Brown 47-49.
38 Wells Brown 47-49.
39 Caroline Lavander, "'Let Her White Progeny Offset Her Dark One': The Child and the Racial Politics of Nation Making," American Literature76.2 June 2004:  228.
40 Lavander 229.
41 Lavender 229.
42 Lavander 224.
43 Lavander 224.
44 Thomas Jefferson, "Notes on Virginia: Query XIV: The Administration of Justice and the Description of the Laws?,,"  The Works of Thomas Jefferson, Volume IV (1782-1786) np.
http://oll.liberty.org/Texts/Jefferson0136/Works/Vo104/HTML/0054-04_Notes.html accessed Mar 2005.
45 George M. Fredrickson, The Black Image in the White Mind: The Debate on Afro-American Character and Destiny, 1817-1914, (Hanover, New England: Wesleyan University Press, 1987) 14.
46 Fredrickson 24.
47 Fredrickson 13.
48 Jefferson np.
49 David Brion Davis, "Getting Rid of Them," Antebellum American Culture: an Interpretive Anthology, ed. David Brion Davis (Lexington, Mass.: D.C. Heath and Company, 1979) 274.
50 Fredrickson 5.
51 Fredrickson 8.
52 Grant T. Smith, "Notes on Uncle Tom's Cabin," Stowe, the Abolitionist Movement, and Prevailing Theories of Race in Nineteenth-Century America (Susan M. Nuernberg): 1
http://www.viterbo.edu/personalpages/faculty/GSmith/UncleTomsCabinNotes/html accessed Mar 2005.
53 Smith 1.
54 Fredrickson 3.
55 Fredrickson 22.
56 Thomas Jefferson np.
57 Fredrickson 19.
58 Fredrickson 147.
59 Thomas R. Dew, "The Pro-Slavery Argument," Antebellum American Culture: An Interpretive History, ed. David Brion Davis (Lexington, Mass.: D.C. Heath and Company, 1979) 337.
60 Winston Churchill, The Great Republic: A History of America, ed. Winston S. Churchill (London: Cassell & Co, 2002) 138.
61 Dew 335-336.
62 Daniel Snowman, America Since 1920 (London: Heinemann Educational Books Ltd., 1978) 2-3.
63 Ward, Burns and Burns 6.
64 Ward, Burns and Burns 6.
65 Ward, Burns and Burns 19.
66Thomas C. Holt and Elsa Barkley Brown, eds. "Margaret Garner, a Slave Mother, Kills Her Child to Prevent Reenslavement, 1856: City News," Major Problems in African_American History: Volume 1: From Slavery to Freedom, 1619-1877 (Boston; Houghton Mifflin Company, 2000) 246.
67 Holt and Barkley Brown, eds. "Margaret Garner, a Slave Mother, Kills Her child to Prevent Reenslavement, 1856: City News," 247.
68 P.S. Bassett, "A Visit to the Slave Mother Who Killed Her Child," Major Problems in African-American History: Volume 1: From Slavery to Freedom, 1619-1877, eds. Thomas C. Holt and Elsa Barkley Brown (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2000) 248.
69 Donna M. Campbell,  "The Slave Narrative," Literary Movements 2004. np.
http://222.gonzzzaga.edu\/faculty/campbell/en1311/slave.htm accessed Apr 2005.
70 Ward, Burns and Burns 9.
71 Frederick Douglas, Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglas, an American Slave, Written by Himself.n !1818-1895) Electronic Edition, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1999.
http://docsouth.unc.edu/douglass/douglass.html accessed mar 2005.
72 Toni Morrison, Playing in the Dark ((London: Picador, 1992) 50.
73 Robert A.Gibson, "Slave Narratives: Their  Background and Themes," Slave Narratives: Black Autobiography in Nineteenth-Century America  np.
http://www.yale.edu/ynhti/curriculum/units/1985/5/85.05.02.x.html  accessed Mar 2005.
74 Aaron, "Summary," The Light and Truth of Slavery. Aaron's History, (Worcester, Ma.: The Author, 1845) 1.
http://docsouth.unc.edu/neh/aaron/summary.html accessed Mar 2005.
75 Fredrickson 325.
76 Gibson np.
77 Jacobs Ch 14.
78 Jacobs, Preface np.
79 Walter F. White "Color Lines," The Survey Graphic Harlem Number 5.6 (1925) 681.
http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/harlem/WhiColoF.html accessed Nov 2004.
80 White 682.
81 Gray White, Ar'n't I a Woman: Female Slaves in the Plantation South 96.
82 William Shakespeare, "Hamlet," The Illustrated Stratford Shakespeare (London: Chancellor Press, 1982) 814.
83 Gray White, Ar'n't I a Woman: Female Slaves in the Plantation South 106.
84 Gray White, Ar'n't I a Woman: Female Slaves in the Plantation South 109.
85 Robert William Fogel, The Rise and Fall of American Slavery: without Concent or Contract (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1994) 165.
86 T. Parsons, "The Isolated Conjugal Family," Sociology of the Family, ed. Michael Anderson (Middlesex: Penguin Books, 1980) 193.
87 Parsons 193.
88 Nathanial Hawthorne, The Scarlet Letter (London: Penguin Books, 1994) 176.
89 Mark Twain, The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (London: Penguin Books, 1994) 47.
90 Twain 147.
91 Mark Twain, The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (London: Thomas Nelson & Sons, no date)
92 Anne Douglas, Terrible Honesty: Mongrel in Manhattan in the 1920s (London: Picador, 1996) 206.
93 Morrison, Playing in the Dark 56.
94 Madeline Rowe, "Getting Started: The 'Rise of the Novel'," The English Review 12.4 April 2002.11.
95 Harriet Beecher Stowe, Uncle Tom's Cabin  (New York: Signet Classics, 1966)
96 James Baldwin, "Everybody's Protest Novel," Notes of a Native Son (London: Penguin Books, 1995) 20.
97 J. Furman, Toni Morrison's Fiction (Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press, 1996) 78.
98Marilyn Sanders Mobley, "Essay," Toni Morrison: Beloved", ed. Carl Plasa (Basinstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 1998) 52.
99 E.M. Forster, Aspects of the Novel (Middlesex: Penguin, 1971) 54.
100 Forster 54.
101 Rowe 10.
102 Baldwin 21.
103 Baldwin 21.
104 Toni Morrison, "Trying to Fill in the Blanks: Beloved's Intertexts," Toni Morrison: Beloved, ed. Carl Plasa (Basinstoke; Palgrave Macmillan, 1998) 37.
105 Toni Morrison, ""Interviews," Toni Morrison: Beloved, ed. Carl Plasa (Basinstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 1998) 33.
106 Taylor-Guthrie, Danille, ed. "In the Realm of Responsibility: A Conversation with Toni Morrison: Marsha Darling," Conversations with Toni Morrison (Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1994) 248.
107 Melissa Walker, "Beloved," Down from the Mountaintop: Black Women's Novels in the Wake of the Civil Rights Movement 1966-1989 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1991) 34.
108 Rafael Perez-Torres, "Knitting and Knotting the Narrative Thread-Beloved as Postmodern Novel," Toni Morrison: Critical and Theoretical Approaches, ed. Nancy J Peterson (Baltimore: The John Hopkins University Press, 1997) 91.
109 Liliane Weissberg, "Gothic Spaces: The Political Aesthetics of Toni Morrison's Beloved," Modern Gothic: A Reader , eds. Victor Sage and Allan Lloyd Smith (Manchester: University Press, 1996) 108.
110 Furman 70.
111 Taylor-Guthrie, Danille, ed. "A Conversation with Toni Morrison: Bill Moyers," Conversations with Toni Morrison (Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1994) 272.

Bibliography

Primary Texts

Jacobs, Harriet. Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl: Written by Herself. Boston 1861. http://xroads.virginia.edu/~HYPER/JACOBS/hj-cover.htm accessed Mar. 2005.

Morrison, Toni. Beloved. London: Vintage, 1987.

Secondary Texts

Baldwin, James. “Everybody’s Protest Novel.” Notes of a Native Son. London: Penguin Books, 1995.

Brogan, Hugh. The Penguin History of the United States of America. Second Edition. London: Penguin Books. 2001.

Churchill, Winston. The Great Republic; A History of America. Ed. Winston S. Churchill. London: Cassell & Co, 2002.

Davis, David Brion, ed.“Declaration of the National Anti-Slavery Convention (1833),” Antebellum American Culture: An Interpretive Anthology. Lexington: D. C. Heath and Company, 1979. 426-427.

Dew, Thomas R. “The Proslavery Argument,” Antebellum American Culture: An Interpretive Anthology. Ed. David Brion Davis. Lexingtom: D.C.Heath and Company, 1979. 334-338.

Douglas, Anne. Terrible Honesty: Mongrel in Manhattan in the 1920s. London: Picador, 1996

Fogel, Robert William. The Rise and Fall of American Slavery: without Consent or Contract. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1994. Forster, E.M. Aspects of the Novel. Middlesex: Penguin, 1971.

Fredrickson, George M. The Black Image In The White Mind: The Debate on Afro-American Character and Destiny, 1817-1914. Hanover, New England: Wesleyan University Press, 1987.

Furman, J. Toni Morrison’s Fiction. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press, 1996.

Gray White, Deborah. Ar’n’t I a Woman?: Female Slaves in the Plantation South. Revised edition. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1999.

Gray White, Deborah. “Gender Roles and Gender Identity in Slave Communities.” Major Problems in African-American History: Volume I: From Slavery To Freedom, 1619-1877. Eds. Thomas C. Holt and Elsa Barkley Brown. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2000. 268-277.

Hawthorne, Nathanial. The Scarlet Letter. London: Penguin Books, 1994.

Holt, Thomas C. and Barkley Brown, Elsa. eds. “An Act to Discriminate Between Africans and Others in Maryland, 1664.” Major Problems in African-American History: Volume I: From Slavery To Freedom, 1619-1877. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2000. 89-90. Jordan, Winthrop D. “The Mutual Causation of Racism and Slavery.” Major Problems in African_American History: Volume I: From Slavery To Freedom, 1619-1877. Eds. Thomas C Holt and Elsa Barkley Brown. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2000. 92-98. Lavander, Caroline. “‘Let Her White Progeny Offset Her Dark One’: The Child and the Racial Politics of Nation Making.” American Literature Volume 76 Number 2 June 2004 pp221-246.

“Margaret Garner, a Slave Mother, Kills Her Child to Prevent Reenslavement, 1856.” Major Problems in African-American History: Volume I: From Slavery To Freedom, 1619-1877. Eds. Thomas C. Holt and Elsa Barkley Brown. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2000. 246-249.

Morgan, Edmund S. “The Paradox of Slavery and Freedom.” Major Problems in African- American History: Volume I: From Slavery To Freedom, 1619-1877. Eds. Thomas C Holt and Elsa Barkley Brown. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2000. 99-108.

Morrison, Toni. “The Site of Memory.” Inventing the Truth: The Art and Craft of Memoir. Ed.William Zissner. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1987. 103-124.

Morrison, Toni. Playing in the Dark. London: Picador, 1992.

Moyers, Bill. “A Conversation with Toni Morrison.” Conversations with Toni Morrison. Ed. Danille Taylor-Guthrie, Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1994. 262-274.

Owens, Leslie Howard. This Species of Property: Slave Life and Culture in the Old South. New York: Oxford University Press, 1976.

Parsons, T. “The Isolated Conjugal Family.” Sociology of the Family. Ed Michael Anderson, Middlesex: Penguin Books, 1980.

Plasa, Carl. ed. Toni Morrison: Beloved. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 1998.

Perez, Rafael-Torres, “Knitting and Knotting the Narrative Thread-Beloved as Postmodern Novel,” Toni Morrison: Critical And Theoretical Approaches. Ed. Nancy J. Peterson Baltimore: The John Hopkins University Press, 1997. 91-109.

Peterson, Nancy J. “Say Make Me, Remake Me: Toni Morrison and the Reconstruction of African-American History.” Toni Morrison: Critical And Theoretical Approaches. Nancy J. Peterson ed. Baltimore: The John Hopkins University Press, 1997. 201-217.

Rowe, Madeline. “Getting Started: The Rise of the Novel.” The English Review. 12.4 April 2002. 10-12.

Shakespeare, William. “Hamlet.” The Illustrated Stratford Shakespeare. London: Chancellor Press, 1982. Snowman,Daniel. America since 1920. London: Heinemann Educational Books Ltd., 1978.

Stowe, Harriet Beecher. Uncle Tom’s Cabin. New York: Signet Classics, 1966.

Taylor-Guthrie, Danille, ed. “In the Realm of Responsibility: A Conversation with Toni Morrison: Marsha Darling.” Conversations with Toni Morrison. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1994. 246-254.

Taylor-Guthrie, Danille, ed. “A Conversation with Toni Morrison: Bill Moyers.” Conversations with Toni Morrison. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1994. 262-274.

Trotter, Joe William Jr. The African American Experience. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001.

Twain, Mark. The Adventures of Tom Sawyer. London: Penguin Books, 1994.

Twain, Mark. The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. London:Thomas Nelson & Sons Ltd., no date.

Walker, Melissa. “Beloved.” Down from the Mountaintop: Black Women’s Novels in the Wake of the Civil Rights Movement 1966-1989. New Haven & London: Yale University Press, 1991. 33-46.

Ward, Geoffrey C., Burns, Ric, Burns, Ken. The Civil War. London:The Bodley Head, 1991.

Weissberg, Liliane. “Gothic Spaces: The Political Asthetics of Toni Morrison’s Beloved.” Modern Gothic: a Reader. Eds. Victor Sage and Allan Lloyd Smith. Manchester: University Press, 1996. 104-120.

Websites

Aaron. “Summary.” The Light and Truth of Slavery. Aaron’s History. Worcester, Ma.; The Author,1845. 1. http://docsouth.unc.edu/neh/aaron/sumarry.html accessed Mar 2005.

Aaron. The Light and Truth of Slavery. Aaron’s History. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina, 2000. http://docsouth.unc.edu/neh/aaron/aaron.html accessed Mar 2005.

Campbell, Donna M. “The Slave Narrative” Literary Movements 2004. http://www.gonzaga.edu/faculty/campbell/enl311/slave.htm accessed Apr 2005.

Douglass, Frederick. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave. Written by Himself.n (1818-1895) Electronic Edition, Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina, 1999. http://doccsouth.unc.edu/douglass/douglass.html accessed Mar 2005.

Gibson, Robert A. “The Slave Narratives: Their Background and Themes,” Slave Narratives: Black Autobiography in Nineteenth-Century America np. http://www.yale.edu/ynhti/curriculum/units/1985/5/85.05.02.x.html accessed Mar 2005.

Jefferson, Thomas. “Notes on Virginia: Query XIV: The Administration of Justice and the Description of the Laws?” The Works of Thomas Jefferson, Volume IV (1782-1786). http://oll.liberty.org/Texts/Jefferson0136/Works/Vol04/HTML/0054-04_Notes.html accessed Mar 2005.

“Slavery in the United States.” Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopaedia. 2005. http://ak.encarta.msn.com accessed Jan 2005.

Smith, Grant T. “Notes on Uncle Tom’s Cabin.” Stowe, the Abolitionist Movement, and Prevailing Theories of Race in Nineteenth-Century America (Susan M. Nuernberg). http://www.viterbo.edu/personalpages/faculty/GSmith/UncleTomsCabinNotes/html accessed Mar 2005.

Wells Brown, William. Narrative of William W. Brown, an American Slave, Written by Himself. London: Charles Gilpin, 1849. http://docsouth.unc.edu/brownw/brown.html accessed Mar 2005.

White, Walter F. “Color Lines” The Survey Graphic Harlem Number 5.6. (1925) 680-682. http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/harlem/WhiColoF.html accessed Nov.2004.

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© Marie C. E. Burns, December 2008


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